عنوان مقاله [English]
The emergence of Islam in the east of Iran, part of which is now called Afghanistan, goes back to the Rashidun Caliphate era. Based on historical documents, the influence of the Shia in this area was initiated by the strict behavior of the Umayyad towards Shiites. The arrival of Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha (Reza) in Khorasan, the Mongolians’ religious tolerance, the Ilkhanate’s conversion to Islam and their tendency towards the Shia, and the emergence of the Safavids are considered important in the expansion of the Shia in this region. In recent decades in the Islamic society of the Afghanistan, Shiites are considered a minority. However, the Shia is more common in the Farsi-speaking Iranian tribes of Afghanistan. Most of the Hazare and Qizilbash (Ghezelbash) tribes are Shiites. In addition, the Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baloch and even Pashtun and some other tribes have some Shia followers. The Shiites reside in different provinces but most of them live in the central part of the Afghanistan, Hazarejat. Most of Afghanistan’s Shiites are twelvers, although a considerable number of the Tajik’s Shiites are followers of the Ismaili subdivision. The main purpose of this research is to study the sociopolitical life of Afghanistan’s Shiites in Sadozai’s era (1747-1818) and their role in gaining power by Ahmed Khan Abdali (Durrani), the founder of the Sadozai kingdom, and consolidation of the power for him and his children. In gaining power and victories, Sadozai benefited from the military experience of some of the tribes of Hazare. The Qizilbash also helped them in military and ministry affairs. Proximity of these tribes to the core of power sometimes caused reactions from Pashtun who were mostly Sunni. Studying some of the historical events and Shia’s reaction to them would make a ground to better understanding the behavioral pattern of Afghanistan’s Shiites in that period. Results of this study could be useful in further understanding of Shia’s interactions with Durrani’s government and their position in the society.